Let’s say you got into the stock market for the first time. The most obvious entry point is buying stocks as the process is pretty straightforward. However, if you invest more of your capital in stocks over time, an alarming situation arises. As you can see, the stock market is volatile and is experiencing a correction or a downward trend. In a downtrend, almost all stocks begin to fall in price. In such a situation, if you put all of your invested capital in stocks, your investments could lose some of their value.
What should i do? Diversify.
After investing in stocks, professional investors turn to options trading. Options, or option contracts, are essentially a type of agreement between two parties whereby the buyer has the option, but not the obligation, to buy or sell an underlying asset. While options trading can prove to be an ideal market for diversification, it is a complex trading process that can result in losses. To ensure your safety when trading options, you can use option greeks.
This blog will detail options Greeks and one of its factors known as theta. But first a little about option Greeks.
What are option greeks?
Option Greeks are financial ratios based on mathematical formulas to calculate the sensitivity of the price of options contracts to factors such as the price of the underlying asset or market volatility. For example, if you’ve bought an options contract and you want to know whether you should exercise the right, Option Greeks can help you predict whether the price will go up or down. Five options that Greeks summarize make up the term, these are:

delta

gamma

Vega

Theta

Rho
An options trader uses these option greeks to achieve the following goals:

Option Greeks

goals

delta

Price of the underlying

gamma

Price of the underlying

Vega

volatility

Theta

Ripening time

Rho

Interest rate
What is theta in options?
Theta options are defined as Greek options that measure the rate at which the option is losing its time value as the expiration date approaches. It is the rate of decrease in the option price over time. Because it measures loss value based on time, theta in options is sometimes referred to as the time expiration of an options contract.
The main assumption behind theta options is that an options contract will always lose value and become less interesting to investors as it matures, as long as all other factors are constant. Theta in options is always a negative number as it is subtracted from the rupee value of the options contract on a particular day. For example, if theta is 3 and everything else is constant, the option value for that particular day will be eroded by 3 points.
Understand theta in options
Theta options are essentially part of the factors known as Greeks that derive the process of option pricing. An options contract sets a predetermined price, known as the strike price, when the creator first enters into the contract. This means that the investor can only exercise the option if the price of the underlying asset reaches the strike price of the contract.
This time frame to expiration forms the basis of theta in options. Theta options quantify the risk investors take due to the expiry of time, as investors can only exercise the options contract for a limited period of time. For a better understanding, see the explanation below.
It is a common principle that the profitability of an options contract will decrease over time. This happens because once an options contract approaches its expiration date, it has less time to be profitable or expire in the money and not be worthless. On the other hand, if an options contract has a long term to maturity, it sees more interest as it has more time to be profitable and to hit the spot price of the underlying asset.
If you are comparing the value of two options contracts with the same exercise price and underlying, the contract with more expiration days will always have a higher value. This lapse of time and how the options contract declines in value with each passing day is defined by theta in options.
How do you interpret theta?
Since theta options always represent the loss in value and time risk of an options contract, it is always a negative value. Since the theta value of long options is always negative, there is always a zero time value when the option finally expires. As a result, the value always increases for the sellers of the options contract, but at the same time decreases for the option buyers. For this reason, theta in options is considered a good technical factor for option sellers, but not for option buyers.
How do you calculate theta in options?
The theta value is negative and positive depending on the time frame of the options. For example, theta in the option value is negative for long positions and positive for short positions. You can calculate the theta value by using the following formula listed below:
Theta = – (∂V / ∂τ)
Here,
 ∂ is the first derivative.
 V is the option price based on the theoretical value.
 τ is the time until the expiration or maturity of the options contract.
The theta in options is always presented as a premium or rupee amount and can be calculated daily or weekly. However, an investor using theta in options should keep in mind that the values are not accurate as the whole process is theoretical. The theta values are based on the assumption that volatility and price movements will persist. Therefore, the expiry rate of an options contract can change the next day, making it a little unreliable.
Last word
All options contracts, regardless of whether they are call or put options, lose value every day on the expiration date. Investors try to understand the decay of time and how much an options contract can lose in value over a given time frame. Hence, theta is always expressed as points lost per day, even if all other conditions remain the same. Now that you know what theta is in options and how to calculate theta in options, you can use it to trade options effectively.
frequently asked Questions
Q.1: What is the options theta example?
Year: For example, suppose you buy a call option with an exercise price of Rs 500 for Rs 50. The underlying stock is trading at Rs 450 and the expiration date is after five days. If the theta value is Rs 5, it means that the options contract is losing Rs 5 in value every day.
Q.2: is positive theta good?
Year: Yes, if the theta option is positive it is a good sign as it means that the contract is making money for investors due to the lapse of time.
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